Asia is the largest regional construction market worldwide accounting for some 40% of global construction spending in 2012, and it is forecasted to account for almost one half of global construction spending by 2020. While mid- and high-rise buildings have been dominated by concrete and steel in Asia, climate change, urbanization, sustainable development and world housing needs have created a case for wood as a structural material in buildings. With governments seeking lower carbon building alternatives and renewable materials, there is a growing interest to use mid-rise and tall wood buildings in countries like China, Japan and South Korea.
This workshop will present market opportunities, government policy, research and development, and code and standard work to advance mid-rise and tall wood construction in China, Japan and South Korea.
Moderator: Chun Ni, FPInnovations, Canada
Research and Development of Mid- and High-Rise Timber Structures in China
Speaker: Feng Liang, Tongji Architectrual Design (Group) Co., Ltd., China
China has a long history of mid- and high-rise timber structures. An example is the well-known Yingxian wooden pagoda, which was built in 1056 A.D. and, at 67 metres, remains the tallest wooden pagoda in the world. With the development of timber structures worldwide and the promotion of green buildings by the Chinese government, more and more builders and researchers have shown their interest in mid- and high-rise timber structures in China.
This presentation will provide a systematic and comprehensive investigation into two timber structural systems: timber-steel hybrid structures—which consist of steel moment resisting frames, infill wood shear walls, and timber-steel hybrid diaphragms—and cross-laminated timber (CLT) structures. For the timber-steel hybrid structure, the quasi-static test of the hybrid diaphragms and the shear walls, the shaking table test of a timber-steel hybrid structure, and the proposed seismic design method are presented. For the CLT structure, tests on some innovative connections, lateral performance of conventional CLT shear walls and the post-tensioned CLT shear walls, and development of a displacement-based seismic design procedure for CLT structures are presented. The information generated from these studies will provide the technical support for future code implementation for mid- and high-rise timber structures in China.
Research on Multi-Storey Post-and-Beam Timber Structures with Infilled Shear Walls
Speaker: Huifeng Yang, Nanjing Tech University, China
There is rapid development of multi-storey and tall mass timber structures around the world, including hybrid timber-concrete/steel structures, cross-laminated timber structures, and post and beam with shear wall structure systems. This presentation provides a comprehensive overview of a study on a post-and-beam timber structure with infilled shear walls in China. To investigate the structural mechanism and behaviour of this type of structure, experimental work was conducted under cyclic loads for both shear walls and shear walls infilled in timber post-and-beam systems. Based on this work, shaking table tests were carried out on an 8-storey timber structure. The objective of this presentation is to provide scientific and technical support for future research and engineering applications in China.
Rediscovery of Timber in Japan: Various CLT Applications
Speaker: Yosuke Komiyama, Kyoto University, Japan
The current state of mass timber construction in Japan will be discussed in this presentation. In Japan, making the most of its rich forest resources and revitalizing the local economy by using domestic wood are the driving forces for building more timber structures. Architects are actively involved in developing new wood technologies, such as cross-laminated timber (CLT), for the coexistence of traditional wood building methodologies and new engineering technologies. The government is leading the way in introducing more timber, especially in public buildings, and gives various subsidies to advance timber use in private buildings. Collaboration between industry, government, and academia has resulted in numerous research and development activities. More public attention has been given to wood construction, which has become one of the frontiers of contemporary architecture in Japan.
The presenter will also share various projects he designed with CLT, including the Tablet Archive + Gallery in Haruna (single-storey CLT autonomous warehouse without air conditioning, 2017), Matsuo Construction Co., Ltd.’s headquarters in Saga (5-storey steel and CLT hybrid office building, 2018), and Roadside Station Annex in Shimonita (single-storey CLT and traditional post and beam hybrid structure, 2018).
Dr. Liang holds his MSc and PhD in Structural Engineering from the College of Civil Engineering, Tongji University, China. He has been working in Tongji Architectural Design Institute (Group) CO., LTD as a structural engineer since 2008.
Dr. Liang is expert in steel structures and timber structures. His work focuses on prefabricated structures, high-rising structures, and steel-timber hybrid structures. He also participated in many important steel and timber projects in China and achieved the awards from the Government and the china civil engineering society.
Huifeng Yang obtained a PhD in the field of timber structure from Nanjing Tech University, China in 2007. He has been working at Nanjing Tech University since then and was a visiting professor at Lund University in Sweden from March 2014 to August 2015. Professor Yang is the director of the Division of Green Building Technology in the College of Civil Engineering of Nanjing Tech University. His research interests include timber and hybrid timber structural systems, joints and connections for timber structures, and reinforcement of timber structures.
Professor Yang is a member of several committees, including the Committee of Timber Structures of the Architectural Society of China, Committee on Timber Engineering of the Architectural Society China, Committee of Bamboo and Timber Structures of the Jiangsu Civil Engineering & Architectural Society. He is one of the key committee members for developing the General Specification of Timber Structures (under development) Technical Standard for Multi-Storey and High-Rise Timber Buildings (GB/T 51226), and Technical Code for Prefabricated Timber Buildings (GB/T 51233). He has published more than 50 academic papers and has designed several mass timber structures and bridges in China, including a 76-m span timber bridge that was built in 2012. He has received several awards for his scientific achievements from the government of China.
Yosuke Komiyama is a Japanese architect and researcher, and is currently an Assistant Professor at Kyoto University. He received a Ph.D from the University of Tokyo. He also studied at The Technical University of Munich and École Nationale Supérieure d’Architecture de Paris La Villette before working at Horden Cherry Lee Architects (London) and Emeraude Architectural Laboratory (Gunma Prefecture).
He designs architectural prototypes with new timber technologies, especially cross laminated timber. When he worked for Horden Cherry Lee Architects, Mr. Komiyama was the lead on concept and detail designs and construction supervision for a CLT building, Kingsgate House (a 7-storey affordable housing project, completed in 2014 and the world’s first PEFC certified building). Since returning to Japan, he has worked on six CLT projects and has also been involved in various joint CLT research projects with construction companies.
He wrote a serial article “12 Sections of CLT” about CLT development in Japan in 2017–2018 in a Japanese architectural magazine SHINKENCHIKU (New Architecture). He recently received an “Excellent Research Award in Young Architects’ Design Sessions” at ISAIA 2018 (International Symposium on Architectural Interchanges in Asia) for the project “Tablets Archive + Gallery in Haruna”.